Sustainable use of forests



2017 2016 2015
PEFC-certified multiple-use forests



Total area of multiple-use forests, ha 4,905,000 4,886,000 4,919,000 1)

of which multiple-use forest land*, ha 3,500,000 3,482,000 3,493,000 1)

of which low-productivity land, ha 715,000 714,000 722,000 1)

of which non-productive land, ha 691,000 690,000 704,000 1)






Multiple-use forests in forestry use, ha 2,900,000 3,033,766 3,012,981 1)
Multiple-use forests in restricted forestry use, general social obligations, ha 231,400 238,425 261,776 1)

of which sites restricted due to biodiversity, ha 23,800 23,868 32,554 1)

of which sites restricted due to reindeer husbandry, ha 7,100 7,799 8,001 1)

of which sites restricted in the Sámi Homeland in order to safeguard the preconditions of the Sámi culture, ha 5,500 5,496 5,472 1)

of which sites in particularly important recreational use, ha 195,000 201,262 215,749 1)

percentage of sites in restricted use of the surface area of forest land in multiple-use forests 7 7 7 1)
Multiple-use forest excluded from forestry, general social obligations (no felling/selection cutting), ha 322,500 321,389 302,345 1)

of which excluded from use due to biodiversity, ha 189,200 187,201 178,872 1)

of which excluded from use due to reindeer husbandry, ha 31,000 31,441 32,243 2)

of which in the Sámi Homeland in order to safeguard the preconditions of the Sámi culture, ha 96,600 96,914 88,218 1)

of which sites in particularly important recreational use, ha 5,800 5,833 3,012 1)

percentage of sites excluded from use of the surface area of forest land in multiple-use forests, % 9 9 8 1)






Multiple-use forests by forest type




Herb-rich forests and herb-rich forests on mineral soils, % 2 1.6 1 1)

Young forest heaths, % 20 25.6 23.6 1)

Dry and nutrient-poor pine forests, % 78 72.8 75.5 1)






Forest resources



Growing stock in multiple-use forests, million m³ 313 308 307 1)
Growth of multiple-use forests, million m³/year 11 11 11 1)






Timber harvesting



Percentage of forest area on which timber is harvested in the year in question 2.1 2.5 1.7 1)
Harvested timber, million m³ 5.9 6.06 5.86 1)

of which energy wood, m³ 120,000 242,500 272,900 1)
Percentage of harvested timber of the growth in the year 55 55 53.3 1)
Percentage of intermediate felling of the cutting yield, ha 59 58.5 53 1)
Percentage of regeneration felling of the cutting yield, ha 35.5 35 41 1)
Percentage of special fellings of all felling, ha 5.5 6.4 6 1)
Percentage of energy wood of harvested timber 2 4.05 4.66 1)






Forest regeneration



Naturally regenerated regeneration sites, ha (%) 13.9 12 7 1)
Regeneration sites regenerated by sowing or planting, ha, (%) 86.1 88 93 1)
Soil preparation Nutrient-poor habitats not prepared, on other sites the soil preparation methods employed are as non-invasive as possible Nutrient-poor habitats not prepared, on other sites the soil preparation methods employed are as non-invasive as possible Nutrient-poor habitats not prepared, on other sites the soil preparation methods employed are as non-invasive as possible 3)
Buffer zones of water bodies Buffer zone width ranges from 10 to 20 metres, depending on the type of water body, ground inclination and soil type Buffer zone width ranges from 10 to 20 metres, depending on the type of water body, ground inclination and soil type Buffer zone width ranges from 10 to 20 metres, depending on the type of water body, ground inclination and soil type 3)
Origin of seeds and saplings Native Native Native 3)






Quality of environmental management at forestry work sites



Quality of environmental management at forestry work sites:




Characteristics of sites of high natural value preserved at work sites, % 99 98.6 95 4)

Number of valuable retention trees left standing in the regeneration site, trees/ha 12 11.7 11 4)

Protection of waters in felling sites, rating (scale 1-4) 3.9 3.7 3.88 4)

Protection of waters in restoration drainage sites, rating (scale 1–4) 3.8 3.66 3.73 4)
Controlled burnings 19 18 18 4)
(Forest fires lit, ha) 163 33 0.5 4)
Improving the biodiversity of mire habitats, ha in total 745 418 1204 4)

Restoration of game habitats (REAH), ha 356 384 467 4)

Other restoration measures, ha 389 34 737 4)






Ditch drainage



First-time ditching of mires discontinued, year 1994 1994 1994 3)
Restoration drainage of drained mires:




Mire types classified as endangered Excluded from restoration drainage and other measures Excluded from restoration drainage and other measures Excluded from restoration drainage and other measures 3)

Mire types excessively nutrient-poor for timber production Excluded from restoration drainage Excluded from restoration drainage Excluded from restoration drainage 3)

Mire types with high timber production Restoration drainage performed at 20-30 year intervals Restoration drainage performed at 20-30 year intervals Restoration drainage performed at 20-30 year intervals 3)

Protection of waters Water protection plans are drawn up for all restoration drainage sites. Water protection plans are drawn up for all restoration drainage sites. Water protection plans are drawn up for all restoration drainage sites. 3)






Fertilisation



Forest vitality fertilisation to improve soil nutrient levels On peatlands, usually wood-based ash On peatlands, usually artificial fertiliser and wood-based ash On peatlands, usually artificial fertiliser and wood-based ash 3)
Growth-enhancing fertilisation to enhance tree growth On sites where fertilisation yields clear economic benefits, the fertiliser is chosen to suit the site On sites where fertilisation yields clear economic benefits, the fertiliser is chosen to suit the site On sites where fertilisation yields clear economic benefits, the fertiliser is chosen to suit the site 3)
Protection of waters Buffer zone left Buffer zone left Buffer zone left 3)






Road network and transport



Forest roads on state-owned land, km 38,000 38,000 37,000 1)
Repaired (renovated) roads, km 440 625 600 1)
Newly constructed roads, km 170 190 180 1)
Timber transport volumes:




Road transport, % (million m³) 73 (4.19) 73.7 (4.53) 77.7 (4.6) 5)

Rail transport, % (million m³) 26 (1.48) 25.0 (1.54) 21.3 (1.3) 5)

Log floating and ship transport, % (million m³) 1 (0.07) 1.3 (0.08) 1.0 (0.06) 5)

Total, m³ 5,747,000 6,150,000 5,924,000 5)






Recreational use of forest roads, % 85 85 85 6)






Forestry in the Sámi Homeland The principles for forestry and reindeer husbandry are agreed in negotiations between Metsähallitus, the Sámi Parliament and the Skolt Village Council. The principles for forestry and reindeer husbandry are agreed in negotiations between Metsähallitus, the Sámi Parliament and the Skolt Village Council. The principles for forestry and reindeer husbandry are agreed in negotiations between Metsähallitus, the Sámi Parliament and the Skolt Village Council. 3)
Of the Sámi Homeland:




In forestry use, % 8 8 8 1)

In restricted forestry use, % 8 8 8 1)

Excluded from forestry use, % 84 84 84 1)






* Productive forestry land is classified on the basis of Nordic growth categories of forestry land: on forest land, the average annual growth of the tree stock is at least 1 m³/ha; on low-productivity land, 0.1-1 m³/ha and on non-productive land, less than 0.1 m³/ha.






Source



1) Silvia geographic information system



2) Uljas geographic information system



3) Environmental Guidelines for Practical Forest Management



4) Environmental monitoring in forestry



5) Forestry reporting system



6) Report on the use of the forest road network (2014 Kainuu, 2015 Southern Finland)